“Everything is everywhere, but the environment selects.” This concept regarding microbes is attributed to Lourens Baas Becking, the Dutch botanist and microbiologist. Functionally the theory posits that microbes are not limited by dispersal. Since the nineteenth and early twentieth century, this principle has been challenged. It is challenged in a recent article entitled “Interactions between exotic invasive plants and soil microbes in the rhizosphere suggest that ‘everything is not everywhere’” published in the Annals of Botany.
Authors Rout and Callaway make two observations based on a review of past studies: “First, in their non-native ranges invasive plants commonly interact differently with the same soil microbes than native plants. Second, in their native ranges, plants that are invasive elsewhere commonly interact functionally with soil microbes differently in their home ranges than they do in their non-native ranges. This may help explain why some exotic invasives are more invasive in non-native ranges. See, for example, Rout and Callaway, An invasive plant paradox. Other research however questions the existence of this paradox. See Firn et al., Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities.